Jemima M Corel

On April 22, 1842 in Tazewell County, Virginia, Henry Highland Corel and Nancy Matney had their third child, Jemima M Corel.  When Jemima was about 7 years old, the Corel family and many allied families packed their belongings and headed west.  They traveled by flatboat down the Ohio, Mississippi, and Missouri Rivers.  The boat foundered and the party traveled by wagons driven by oxen until they reached Westport, Missouri1.

By 1850 Henry and Nancy with their children had settled in Washington Township, Jackson County, Kansas2.  As soon as the Kansas Territory was opened, Henry Highland and his two brothers (William and James P.) went into the new territory to stake their claims and soon the extended Corel family was living in what is now known as Douglas County, Kansas.  The 1855 Kansas Territory census shows Jemima, a minor, living with her family, less older sister Sarah who married in 1853, in District 1 of the Kansas Territory3.  Tragedy struck the family later that year when both parents, Henry and Nancy, and a brother, William all died from an epidemic.  Her older sister Sarah Jane hadn’t been seen since before the death of her parents, making Jemima the oldest sibling of the Matney – Corel children.  As she was 13 at the time of the deaths, she was unable to care for her younger siblings, so they were all distributed among the Corel siblings:  Jemima was with William Corel, Julia was with James Pickens Corel, Margaret was with Nancy Maryland Corel LaHay, Louisa was with Cosby Jane Corel Justice, and Rebecca was with Olivia Gillespie Corel McGee (who also had Rebecca Oney Corel living with her in 1860).  In 1860 at the age of 18, Jemima Corel is living with her uncle William Corel4.

John Morgan Salathiel

John Morgan Salathiel was born on April 30, 1836 near the present town of Ironton, Lawrence County, Ohio to Margaret Thomas and Morgan Salathiel.  Margaret and Morgan Salathiel were originally from Wales in the United Kingdom.  They came to the United States about 1832 where Morgan Salathiel worked as a mineralogist and geologist investigating the coal areas of Pennsylvania and Ohio.  Once his work was complete, Morgan Salathiel moved his family from the Hanging Rock Iron Region in Ohio to Cincinnati, Hamilton County, Ohio, where he died about 18495.

There are many sources out there believing that John Morgan Salathiel did not migrate to the Kansas Territory until 1859, where he is found on the Kansas Territory Census just above the entry for his brother-in-law, Lewis Howell.  John lists on this census that he first settled in Kansas Territory in March 1855 and that two people live in his household (John’s mother was living with him)6.  John Salathiel voted in the early Kansas Territory elections on December 15, 18557 and January 15, 18568 at the Blanton Precinct.  Blanton was a post office that operated in Douglas County from September 24, 1825 until February 23, 18569.  Being a strong supporter of the Free State cause, John Salathiel was one of the first to enlist in John Brown’s army on August 22, 185610.  When not battling the Rebels, John Salathiel worked as a clerk in a store while living with his mother in Lawrence, Douglas County, Kansas11.

Married Life

Jemima M Corel married John Morgan Salathiel on November 3, 1861 in Wakarusa Township, Douglas County, Kansas.  The following year, the newlyweds moved to a farm about 8 miles west of Lawrence, Kansas.  The couple welcomed their first son, John Morgan Salathiel, Jr. on September  15, 1862.  It’s not completely clear just what happened next, but it appears that John Salathiel continued to take up arms against the Pro-Slavery men that conducted raids in the Kansas Territory.  In fact, one author of Kansas history in the early 1900s, William Elsey Connelley, wrote two separate accounts of John Salathiel’s continued service for the Free-State cause.

In Quantrill and the Border Wars, written in 1909, Connelley shares a letter written by C.M. Chase from Leavenworth, Kansas to the True Republican and Sentinel of Sycamore, Illinois on August 10, 1863.  C.M. Chase provided definitions of a few terms often used along the Kansas and Missouri border during the Civil War for those far from Bleeding Kansas.

Jayhawkers, Red Legs, and Bushwhackers are everyday terms in Kansas and Western Missouri. A Jayhawker is a Unionist who professes to rob, burn out and murder only rebels in arms against the government. A Red Leg is a Jayhawker originally distinguished by the uniform of red leggings. A Red Leg, however, is regarded as more purely an indiscriminate thief and murderer than the Jayhawker or Bushwhacker. A Bushwhacker is a rebel Jayhawker, or a rebel who bands with others for the purpose of preying upon the lives and property of Union citizens. They are all lawless and indiscriminate in their iniquities. Their occupation, unless crushed out speedily, will end in a system of highway robbery exceeding anything which has existed in any country. It excites the mind, destroys the moral sensibilities, creates a thirst for wild life and adventure which will, on the restoration of peace, find gratification in nothing but highway robbery.

Every thief who wanted to steal from the Missouri people counterfeited the uniform of the Red Legs and went forth to pillage. This gave the organization a bad name, and much of the plundering done along the border was attributed to them, when, in fact, they did little in that line themselves. There .were some bad characters among them — very bad. But they were, generally, honest and patriotic men. They finally hunted down the men who falsely represented themselves to be Red Legs, and they killed every man they found wearing the uniform without authority. The uniform was that of a commissioned company officer, but which one is not now known, supplemented with red leggings, usually made from the red sheepskins used by shoemakers. There were about thirty of them. They received usually the salary of the commissioned officer whose uniform they were authorized to wear. Among them were the following:12.

Connelley goes on to list the men associated with the Red Legs, including a lawyer who defended John Brown at Charleston, Virginia, William Hickok (who is more remembered for a nickname he earned years later, “Wild Bill”), and a proprietor of the horse market at the Kansas City Stock Yards.  At the end of this list, Connelley writes:

A man named Gladhart, Lawrence, was said to have been a member, also “Pony” Searl and John Salathiel, of the same place, but the author has not been able to confirm this13.

This information written by Connelly must be taken with a grain of salt, because Quantrill and the Border Wars is the same book where Connelley writes quite unfavorably of the McGee family and cousin Henry “McLaughlin”, which is highly disputed by McGee descendants.  Additionally, Connelley didn’t mention any connection with the Red Legs when he wrote of John Salathiel years later.

While serving as Secretary for the Kansas State Historical Society in Topeka, Kansas, Connelley compiled and wrote A Standard History of Kansas and Kansans.  In a biography of Thomas Sherman Salathiel, son of Jemima Corel and John Salathiel, Connelley relates that John Salathiel joined Preston B. Plumb’s Company in repelling Quantrill and his raiders when Lawrence, Kansas was attacked August 21, 1863, and that John would later volunteer with a company that helped in warding off General Price as he threatened to invade Kansas14.

John and Jemima would have at least three more children while they lived at the farm west of the city of Lawrence: Charles in 1863, Margaret in 1864, and Thomas Sherman in 1866.  After the 1870 census, John packed up his family moved south to Montgomery County, Kansas.  John Salathiel purchased a claim along the Sycamore Creek, two miles north of the city of Radical where he continued farming until 188015.  The Salathiel children were among the students of the first school in Sycamore Valley that began as a subscription school in 187116.  In 1880 John Salathiel moved his family six miles south into the city of Independence, Montgomery County, Kansas where he became a grocer.  John and Jemima added at least four more children to their family after moving to Montgomery County, Kansas: Henry Morgan in 1874, Walter S. in 1877, Agnes in 1881, and Mary Jane in 1883.  The couple had a ninth child, Julia, who died as an infant.  The exact year of her birth is unknown, but with the spacing of the other children, she was likely born about the time the family moved to Montgomery County.

The family is no where to be found on the 1885 Kansas Census.  By this time the older children may have moved on to live their own lives.  By the 1895 Kansas Census taken in March, John Jr., Charles, and Margaret have all moved away from their parents.  In fact, later that year, on October 19, 1895, John Morgan Salathiel, Jr. died at the American Eagle Mine in El Paso County, Colorado17.

A few years later, John Morgan Salathiel began to behave abnormally.  The following transcribed article from the front page of the Saturday, February 17, 1899 Independence Reporter provided by Bobby Dobbins Title explains the situation.

MR. SALATHIEL
VERDICT REACHED THIS MORNING

He Will Not Be Sent to the Asylum – His Family
Will See That He Receives Proper Treatment
In Private Institutions.

Since Wednesday noon, the question of the sanity of John Salathiel has been on trial in probate court and a verdict was reached at 11 a.m. today by the jury, which consisted of Dr. Ellly, W. C. Millikan, M.V. Strine, J. M. Walker, A. B. Yeager and H. W. Hazen.

The verdict was in accordance with an agreement made by all the parties most interested and is that Mr. Salathiel is unfitted to attend to his own affairs; that his condition is probably due to the excessive use of tobacco and close attention to business; that it is not hereditary or caused by epilepsy and that he has never had any medical treatment for it.

His son Thomas Salathiel was appointed guardian. It is not the intention to send Mr. Salathiel to an insane asylum. It is believed that a rest from business, a change of scene and proper treatment in some sanitarium will restore him, and he will be taken as soon as possible to Manitou Hot Springs, the sea coast, or some other place to be agreed upon.

For several months past it has been evident to Mr. Salathiel’s family that in some respects his mind was unbalanced. On most all subjects and in the conduct of his business he has been perfectly rational, but he has had strange hallucinations of family troubles for which there has not been the slightest grounds and he has made threats against various citizens which have caused his family great uneasiness and impelled them to take action to avoid a possible tragedy. Mr. Salathiel, at first, was disposed to make a bitter fight against this legal proceeding and employed O. P. Ergenbright as his attorney, A. B. Clark representing the state, but even the defendant himself seemed convinced by the testimony adduced; that his actions had been strange, and this morning cheerfully agreed to the disposition that has been made of the case.

The simple truth is that his nervous system is badly impaired. For months he has slept but little and rest and a change are clearly needed and there is every reason for hoping that complete restoration will follow, as his general physical health and strength are good.

The proceeding has excited much interesting in this city, where Mr. Salathiel and his family have resided for many years, enjoying the full confidence and esteem of all our citizens, and everyone hopes that in a short time he will return to us fully restored to his accustomed mental and physical health.

Mr. Salathiel’s grocery store will be kept running as usual and Walter Salathiel now with I. G. Fowler, will give his attention to it for the present.

J M Salathiel & Granddaughter

J M Salathiel & Granddaughter

The photo on the left was provided by Salathiel descendant, Joe Cullen.  Pictured are John Morgan Salathiel and his granddaughter Jemima Nell Eaton.  Jemima Eaton was born  November 13, 1906, so this photo was likely taken about 1909.  The photo below was taken from Douglas County, Kansas, Family Histories 1991-1992, Vol. 1, Page 452 and is labeled “Jemima Eaton Salathiel (left) and Jemima Corel Salathiel.”  I have not yet found another granddaughter for John and Jemima named Jemima, so I am thinking that this photo may have been mislabeled and that the young lady pictured with Jemima M Corel Salathiel is also Jemima Nell Eaton.  The 1900 Federal Census shows John and Jemima living at 401 S. 6th Street in Independence, Kansas with their children, Henry (salesman), Walter (soldier), Agnes, and Mary18.  The couple would see their home emptying out over the next few years.  By the 1905 Kansas census, the only child still living at home was Mary, who was married to Ross Eaton by this time19.  Jemima is still at the same home on 6th Street in 1910 and it appears that Agnes had married and returned to her mother20Jemima Corel Salathiel & Jemima Eaton SalathielA few blocks away, John is found living at his grocery store at 221 N Pennsylvania Avenue21.  Finding this address on the census finalizes the issue I was having with the location of John Salathiel Grocery.  In A Standard History of Kansas and Kansans, Connelley had stated that the store was located at 215 N Penn, while an application to the National Register of Historic Places for the Independence Downtown Historic District placed the store at 221 N Penn22.  The Kansas Census does not appear to list actual addresses – at least not as I can figure out! – but the 1915 census shows Jemima and Agnes living with a young man named Levi Haines as family number 343 while John is living with the James A Otto family under family number 148.  I have searched on the Otto family but have been unable to see any connection with the Salathiel’s.

As the year 1915 was drawing to an end, John Morgan Salathiel passed away.  John’s death on December 9, 1915 was unexpected, as you will see from the collection of obituaries transcribed and provided by Bobby Dobbins Title.

INDEPENDENCE DAILY REPORTER
THURSDAY, DECEMBER 9, 1915

JOHN SALATHIEL DEAD
Pioneer Merchant Dies After Few Days Illness
IN KANSAS SINCE 1854
Came to Montgomery County in 1871 and Located on Farm – Eventful Career

J. Salathiel, one of the oldest merchants of the city and a resident of Kansas since 1854, died this morning at 6:30 o’clock at his apartments over his grocery store on North Penn avenue. While Mr. Salathiel had been complaining for about two months of not feeling well, it was not until last Sunday that he was compelled to be confined to his room. His death was wholly unexpected, as his condition was at no time alarming. The immediate cause of death was heart failure. For many years he has given his business his undivided attention and it was seldom during business hours that he could not be found at his store.

He is survived by his wife, four sons and three daughters, all of whom, with the exception of Charles, reside in this city. His sons are Charles, residing on a farm near Choctaw, Oklahoma; T.S., the well known attorney; Henry, who was associated with his father in the grocery business, and Walter, a former merchant and prominent leader in the Socialist part of the county. His daughters are Mrs. Mary Eaton, Mrs. Fred Newcomb and Miss Agnes Salathiel.

Mr. Salathiel was born April 30, 1836 in Lawrence county, Ohio, on the present townsite of Ironton, and was (79 years, 8 months and 9 days old. He had an eventful career and was among the few survivors of that vast throng that crossed the plains in 1849 to California in search of gold. He was at the time a mere boy and soon returned to Cincinnati, where he lived with his mother until 1854, when he brought his mother to the small frontier town of Lawrence, Kansas, and has since that time been a resident of the state. It was that year that occurred the separation of Kansas and Nebraska and the formation of the latter into a territory with its present boundaries. Mr. Salathiel located on a farm about ten miles from Lawrence after the death of his mother, where he was living during the Quantrell raid. He joined Plumb’s company for the pursuit of the guerilla band, and rendered valuable service when Price threatened Kansas.

He was a personal friend of John Brown and by an accident only was prevented from joining him in his movement that ended at Harpers Ferry. He took an active part in the contest to make Kansas a free state, and was especially interesting in reminiscences of those stirring days.

He was married to Jemimah Corel in Lawrence in 1858, a daughter of Henry Corel, who settled just east of Lawrence in the early days, a part of the old farm now being the city’s beautiful cemetery. Mr. and Mrs. Salathiel lived in Douglas County until 1871, when they removed to Montgomery county and purchased a claim on Sycamore creek, two miles north of Radical. Mr. Salathiel remained on the farm until about 1880, when with his family he removed to this city and engaged in the grocery business, with which he has since been connected.

He never showed his advancing years but always stood erect and was actively engaged at his store every day until declining health last Saturday compelled him to retire. During his life he not only had the opportunity to watch and assist in the development of this county and community from the days of the beginning of things but also the progress and development of the state into a great commonwealth.

INDEPENDENCE REPORTER
Saturday December 11, 1915
pg. 2

The funeral of John Salathiel took place this morning from the residence of R. A. Eaton, on South Fifth street, and was largely attended. The floral offerings were beautiful. Rev. F. L. Pettit of the First Christian church had charge of the impressive funeral services. A quartette composed of Mrs. Frank Stoops, Miss Emma Stentz, John Goodell and Edwin Potts, sang two appropriate selections. The pallbearers were the four sons of the deceased, Tom, Henry, Walter and Charles, and two sons-in-law, R. A. Eaton and Fred Newcomb.

SOUTH KANSAS TRIBUNE
DECEMBER 15, 1915

Death of John Salathiel – A Kansas and County Pioneer

Death came to John Salathiel, the well known old timer and grocer, at 221 N. Pennsylvania Avenue very unexpectedly last Thursday morning at the age of 79 years 7 months and 9 days. He had enjoyed remarkable good health until recent years when he began to fail and in the last few weeks had a bad spell, but not until Sunday previous was he confined to his room.

He is survived by his widow, son Thomas S., Henry, and Walter, and Mrs. Fred Newcomb, Mrs. Mary Eaton and Miss Agnes Salathiel of this city, and Charles, near Choctaw, Okla.

Mr. Salathiel was born in Lawrence county, Ohio, April 30, 1836, was a frontiersman and at the age of 13 he crossed the plains, Rocky mountains and the desert with a caravan of ox teams to search for gold in the territory of California. He soon returned and lived with his mother in Cincinnati until 1854. At the age of 18 he was a free-stater, and with his mother located at Lawrence before Nebraska and Colorado were sliced off Kansas territory and had his part in the making of a free state and was living on a farm near Lawrence when it was sacked and burned by Quantrell and enlisted in Major Plumb’s company that went in pursuit of the guerilla band and later was in the militia to help keep “Pap Price” from entering the state, and was a personal friend of John Brown.

The funeral was held from the home of his son-in-law Ross Eaton, in charge of Rev. F. L. Pettit of the Christian Church. His sons and sons-in-law were pall bearers.

In 1858 he was married to Miss Jemima Correll whose parents lived on the claim where the Lawrence city cemetery is located, and continued to live in that county until 1871, when the family moved to this county and he bought a claim on Sycamore creek north of the then Radical City. In 1880 they removed to this city, where he has since been engaged in the grocery business.

John Salathiel was indeed a well-known man.  On the day of his passing, the following mortuary notice was in the Kansas City Star23.

1915 Dec 9 John Salathiel Death Notice

In 1920 Jemima is living with her son Walter at 401 S Fifth Street with daughter Agnes and her husband, Charles Hall next door at 405 S Fifth24.  Jemima M Corel Salathiel would live only two more years.  She passed on February 16, 1922.

Children

  1. John Morgan Salathiel, Jr. was born September 15, 1862 in Douglas County, Kansas.
  2. Charles Salathiel was born August 17, 1863 in Douglas County, Kansas.
  3. Margaret Salathiel was born September 30, 1864 in Douglas County, Kansas.
  4. Thomas Sherman Salathiel was born October 23, 1866 in Douglas County, Kansas.
  5. Julia Salathiel was born about 1871 in Kansas and died as an infant.
  6. Henry Morgan Salathiel was born December 18, 1874 in Montgomery County, Kansas.
  7. Walter S. Salathiel was born January 18, 1877 in Montgomery County, Kansas.
  8. Agnes Salathiel was born February 13, 1881 in Independence, Montgomery County, Kansas.
  9. Mary Jane Salathiel was born April 8, 1883 in Independence, Montgomery County, Kansas.

  1. Salathiel – Hall, Agnes.  Family History (a brief manuscript). Transcribed copy in possession of Paula K. Hawk.
  2. Ancestry.com. 1850 United States Federal Census (database on-line). Provo, UT, USA: The Generations Network, Inc., 2005. Original data: United States of America, Bureau of the Census. Seventh Census of the United States, 1850. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1850. M432, 1,009 rolls.  Year: 1850; Census Place: Washington, Jackson, Missouri; Roll: M432_402; Page: 261; Image: 70. <http://search.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/sse.dll?db=1850usfedcenancestry&h=3819942&ti=0&indiv=try&gss=pt> (accessed March 25, 2006)
  3. Ancestry.com. Kansas State Census Collection, 1855-1925 (database on-line). Provo, UT, USA: The Generations Network, Inc., 2009. Original data: 1855 Kansas Territory Census. Microfilm reel K-1. Kansas State Historical Society. <http://search.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/sse.dll?db=ksstatecen&h=2209010&ti=0&indiv=try&gss=pt> (accessed January 27, 2009)
  4. Ancestry.com. 1860 United States Federal Census (database on-line). Provo, UT, USA: The Generations Network, Inc., 2004. Original data: United States of America, Bureau of the Census. Eighth Census of the United States, 1860. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1860. M653, 1,438 rolls. Year: 1860; Census Place: Wakarusa, Douglas, Kansas Territory; Roll  M653_349; Page: 0; Image: 51. <http://search.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/sse.dll?db=1860usfedcenancestry&h=44027528&ti=0&indiv=try&gss=pt> (accessed April 28, 2006)
  5. Ancestry.com. History of Kansas and Kansans (database on-line). Provo, UT, USA: The Generations Network, Inc., 2004. Original data: Connelley, William E. A Standard History of Kansas and Kansans. Vol. I-V. Chicago, IL and New York, NY, USA: Lewis Publishing, 1918. Page 1656. <http://search.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/sse.dll?db=histkansas-1918&h=1794&ti=0&indiv=try&gss=pt> (accessed May 7, 2009)
  6. Ancestry.com. Kansas State Census Collection, 1855-1925 (database on-line). Provo, UT, USA: The Generations Network, Inc., 2009. Original data: 1859 Kansas Territory Census. Microfilm reel K-1. Kansas State Historical Society. <http://search.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/sse.dll?db=ksstatecen&h=2782289&ti=0&indiv=try&gss=pt> (accessed June 26, 2009)
  7. Graden, Debra, ed. Kansas Voter Registration Lists, 1854-1856 (database on-line). Provo, UT, USA: The Generations Network, Inc., 1999. Original data: Kansas Territorial Government. Territorial Census of 1855 and 1856. Leavenworth, KS, USA: Kansas Territory, 1856. Via Ancestry.com. <http://search.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/sse.dll?db=katerr1855&h=14721&ti=0&indiv=try&gss=pt> (accessed June 26, 2009)
  8. Graden, Debra, ed. Kansas Voter Registration Lists, 1854-1856 (database on-line). Provo, UT, USA: The Generations Network, Inc., 1999. Original data: Kansas Territorial Government. Territorial Census of 1855 and 1856. Leavenworth, KS, USA: Kansas Territory, 1856. Via Ancestry.com. <http://search.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/sse.dll?db=katerr1855&h=7361&ti=0&indiv=try&gss=pt> (accessed June 25, 2009)
  9. Kansas Historical Society. “Douglas County Post Offices.” Post Offices in Kansas, 1828-1961. Via Kansas Historical Society website. <http://www.kshs.org/genealogists/places/postoffices.php?county=DG> (accessed June 25, 2009)
  10. Edited by F.B. Sanborn. “Chapter X: The Kansas Struggle Continued.” John Brown Liberator of Kansas and Martyr of Virginia, Life and Letters. Cedar Rapids, Iowa: The Torch Press, 1910. Fourth Edition, Page 288. Via Internet Archive. <http://www.archive.org/details/johnbrownliberat00sanb> (accessed June 3, 2009)
  11. Ancestry.com. 1860 United States Federal Census (database on-line). Provo, UT, USA: The Generations Network, Inc., 2004. Original data: United States of America, Bureau of the Census. Eighth Census of the United States, 1860. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1860. M653, 1,438 rolls. Year: 1860; Census Place: Lawrence, Douglas, Kansas Territory; Roll  M653_349; Page: 0; Image: 32. <http://search.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/sse.dll?db=1860usfedcenancestry&h=44024524&ti=0&indiv=try&gss=pt> (accessed June 24, 2009)
  12. Connelley, William Elsey. ” Chapter XXXI: The Lawrence Massacre – Pursuit of the Guerrillas” Quantrill and the Border Wars. Cedar Rapids, Iowa: The Torch Press, 1910. Copyright 1909, William Elsey Connelley. Page 412. Via Google Books. <http://books.google.com/books?id=pskEAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA412> (accessed June 26, 2009)
  13. Connelley, William Elsey. ” Chapter XXXI: The Lawrence Massacre – Pursuit of the Guerrillas” Quantrill and the Border Wars. Cedar Rapids, Iowa: The Torch Press, 1910. Copyright 1909, William Elsey Connelley. Page 412. Via Google Books. <http://books.google.com/books?id=pskEAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA417> (accessed June 26, 2009)
  14. Ancestry.com. History of Kansas and Kansans (database on-line). Provo, UT, USA: The Generations Network, Inc., 2004. Original data: Connelley, William E. A Standard History of Kansas and Kansans. Vol. I-V. Chicago, IL and New York, NY, USA: Lewis Publishing, 1918. Volume 3, Page 1656. <http://search.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/sse.dll?db=histkansas-1918&h=1794&ti=0&indiv=try&gss=pt> (accessed May 7, 2009)
  15. Published by L. Wallace Duncan. History of Montgomery County, Kansas. Iola, Kansas: Press of Iola Register, 1903. Page 460. Retrieved from Heritage Quest Online <http://www.heritagequestonline.com/> (accessed March 4, 2006)
  16. Compiled by the Montgomery Co. Genealogical Society. “Sycamore Township.” History & Families, Montgomery County, Kansas, 1869-1994. Paducah, Kentucky: Turner Publishing Company, 1995. Page 135. Information received from Bobby Dobbins Title via email July 1, 2009.
  17. Sherard, Gerald E.  Colorado Mining Fatalities (pre-1963). Compiled 1995. Via Western History and Genealogy, Denver Public Library. <http://history.denverlibrary.org/research/mining/index.html> (accessed July 8, 2009)
  18. Ancestry.com. 1900 United States Federal Census (database on-line). Provo, UT, USA: The Generations Network, Inc., 2004. Original data: United States of America, Bureau of the Census. Twelfth Census of the United States, 1900. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1900. T623, 1854 rolls. Year: 1900; Census Place: Independence, Montgomery, Kansas; Roll  T623_491 Page: 11B; Enumeration District: 137. <http://search.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/sse.dll?db=1900usfedcen&h=4825926&ti=0&indiv=try&gss=pt> (accessed January 27, 2009)
  19. Ancestry.com. Kansas State Census Collection, 1855-1925 (database on-line). Provo, UT, USA: The Generations Network, Inc., 2009. Original data:  1905 Kansas State Census. Microfilm reels K-1 – K-181. Kansas State Historical Society. <http://search.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/sse.dll?db=ksstatecen&h=2264649&ti=0&indiv=try&gss=pt> (accessed June 28, 2009)
  20. Ancestry.com. 1910 United States Federal Census (database on-line). Provo, UT, USA: The Generations Network, Inc., 2006. Original data: United States of America, Bureau of the Census. Thirteenth Census of the United States, 1910. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1910. T624, 1,178 rolls. Year: 1910; Census Place: Independence Ward 4, Montgomery, Kansas; Roll  T624_448; Page: 6A; Enumeration District: 181; Image: 1322. <http://search.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/sse.dll?db=1910uscenindex&h=8109948&ti=0&indiv=try&gss=pt> (accessed July 8, 2009)
  21. Ancestry.com. 1910 United States Federal Census (database on-line). Provo, UT, USA: The Generations Network, Inc., 2006. Original data: United States of America, Bureau of the Census. Thirteenth Census of the United States, 1910. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1910. T624, 1,178 rolls. Year: 1910; Census Place: Independence Ward 2, Montgomery, Kansas; Roll  T624_448; Page: 1A; Enumeration District: 177; Image: 1188. <http://search.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/sse.dll?db=1910uscenindex&h=8107899&ti=0&indiv=try&gss=pt> (accessed July 2, 2009)
  22. Independence Historical Museum. National Register of Historic Places Registration Form. March 2005. Page 45, Item 84. Via Kansas State Historical Society website (http://www.kshs.org). <http://www.kshs.org/resource/national_register/nominationsNRDB/Montgomery_IndependenceDowntownHistoricDistrictNR.pdf> (accessed June 3, 2009)
  23. Kansas City Star. “Mortuary Notice.” Kansas City Star. December 9, 1915. Via Newsbank via Kansas City Kansas Public Library. <http://www.newsbank.com/> (accessed May 29, 2009)
  24. Ancestry.com. 1920 United States Federal Census (database on-line). Provo, UT, USA: The Generations Network, Inc., 2005. Original data: United States of America, Bureau of the Census. Fourteenth Census of the United States, 1920. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1920. T625, 2,076 rolls.  Year: 1920;Census Place: Independence Ward 4, Montgomery, Kansas; Roll  T625_542; Page: 6A; Enumeration District: 190; Image: 214.  <http://search.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/sse.dll?db=1920usfedcen&h=50693405&ti=0&indiv=try&gss=pt> (accessed July 8, 2009)

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